In order to protect workers and employers alike, there are a series of employment and labor laws all restaurant owners must abide by in order to ensure they are in compliance with state and federal law. To provide a safe, healthy, and fair workplace for their employees, The United States Department of Labor, as well as state and local governments, require businesses to follow the laws outlined below.
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
In conjunction with state laws, the FLSA establishes the following minimum standards for businesses in the foodservice industry:
- An establishment's annual gross sales must total at least $500,000 to be subject to FLSA rules / regulations
- Entitles non-exempt workers to federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour unless an individual state's law requires a higher wage
- Deductions for cash shortages, required uniforms, or customer walk-outs are illegal if they drop the employee's wage below the minimum wage
- Tips may be considered part of wages, but the employer has to pay no less than $2.13 an hour and also make sure the tips add up to the minimum wage
- Employees who work overtime are to be paid one and one-half times their regular rate of pay for each hour over 40 hours per week
- Tipped employees who work overtime are to be paid one and one-half times the applicable minimum wage, not one and one-half times $2.13
- Youth employees under the age of 20 may be paid a minimum wage of no less than $4.25 an hour during the first 90 days of their employment
For more information on the minimum cash and tipped wage in your state, check out this data from the United States Department of Labor.
When scheduling workers under the age of 17, employers have to follow several FLSA guidelines for youth employees. Workers between the ages of 14 and 15 may work outside of school hours in non-hazardous jobs for no more than 3 hours on a school day, 18 hours in a school week, 8 hours on a non-school day, or 40 hours in a non-school week. They also may not work before 7 a.m. or after 7 p.m. except between June 1 and Labor Day, when those hours are extended until 9 p.m. Employees who are 16 years old may perform any non-hazardous job for an unlimited amount of hours until they turn 17, and are considered adults.
Hazardous vs. Non-Hazardous Jobs
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1970 Act passed to create healthier, safer working environments through training, outreach, education, and assistance. OSHA requires that all employers:
- Provide a hazard communication program for employees
- Train employees properly to prevent accidents
- Provide necessary protective equipment
- Have access to a first aid kit
- Display posters from the Department of Labor or their state labor department that inform employees of their protections and rights (example seen to the right)
OSHA permits states to submit their own safety plans for approval. The following image indicates those states with OSHA-approved plans for the private and public sector employees, or both.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Reviews cases of discrimination and enforces the federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against job applicants or employees based on the following:
- Race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability, or genetic information
- A complaint about discrimination on an employee's behalf
Laws enforced by the EEOC:
- Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. The law also makes it illegal to retaliate against someone for filing a charge, complaining of, or taking part in a lawsuit or investigation of discrimination.
- The Pregnancy Discrimination Act which outlaws discrimination because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a medical condition related to child birth
- The Equal Pay Act of 1963 makes it illegal to pay different wages to men and women if they perform equal work in the same workplace.
- The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 protects people 40 and older from discrimination based on age.
- Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 makes it illegal to discriminate against a qualified person because of a disability in both the public and private sectors. It also requires employers to reasonably accommodate physical or mental handicaps in their establishments where not doing so would cause undue hardship
- Sections 102 and 103 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 permits jury trials and monetary damage awards in intentional discrimination cases
- Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 makes it illegal to discriminate against a qualified person with a disability in the federal government
- The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 makes it illegal to discriminate against employees or applicants based on their genetic information that might identify family members, disease information, or disorders and conditions in the family's medical history